PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) or concussion diagnosis and treatment can be difficult, especially when symptoms are not readily or sporadically apparent. This has especially proven to be a problem for the US armed services in assessing the extent of injuries from IEDs, bomb blasts or rocket-propelled grenades. Virtual reality testing–the VRCPAT, or Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test, in addition to computerized and (still) pencil and paper testing–is being trialled and in fact is in development for its third iteration. Other tests are in development by the VA and the University of Southern California (USC)’s NeuroSim Laboratory. While it is not mentioned in the article, the CAREN VR system is being used for treatment post-diagnosis by the VA [TA 21 June]. From a recent workshop on the biological assessment of brain dysfunction, funded by the US Army’s TATRC (Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center), which has done considerable work in the monitoring field. Armed With Science, Assessing Brain Injury: Virtual Reality May Hold Answer.